Although two or VMs can have a single .vmdk assigned as a virtual disk these are presented as SCSI disks and therefore all VMs seeing a single virtual disk would need to use a common clustered file system to manage the virtual disk or enormous data corruption would occur.
I am not aware of any common clustered files systems that allow for both Windows and Linux OSs/VMs to interoperate.
One option you have is to present the disk to a single Windows VM then to have that VM share the disk our using CIFS/SMB and have the Linux VM mount that. Obviously this would be file-level share only.
If I can find a trustworthy common cluster file system that is appropriate I'll update my answer but I'm not hopeful.