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I have a large LAN at my company. I suspect that there is a failure of a router or of a transmission line connecting routers. I want to narrow down the search, where is the fault. How could I narrow down the location of the problem.

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Do you mean your company has a large WAN (wide area network) connected by routers? – splattne Mar 13 '10 at 11:36
There is way too little information here to help you debugging the network. Consider the following questions: Do you have control over the network or are you trying to find an error in a network administrated by somebody else? What kind of hardware/software are you running? Routing protocol? What types of links (Ethernet? Sonet? MPLS over something?) Why do you think a router or line is down? What kind of errors are you getting? – pehrs Mar 13 '10 at 12:03

Why do you think that there is a failure in your network? If some hosts are unreachable than traceroute command can tell you about the last reachable router.

If you want to hear a general advice, then I would recommend to find or make a detailed network scheme for a start.

BTW you should think about installing at least a basic NMS to be able to manage a large LAN. Consider for example free and opensource Nagios.

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