Can the Windows Firewall in Windows Server be used to block connections from a specific IP address?
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On Windows 7, the Firewall control panel allows the creation of very specific rules through the "Advanced Settings". On the Inbound Rule tab, there is a New Rule wizard, and IP addresses can be specified in the scope section and "block" specified as the action to take. A rule to block all incoming connections from a specific IP address or range is possible.
On Windows XP, the Firewall control panel allows the blocking on incoming requests from specific programs, and each program can have the block only for a certain IP range (via the "scope" button on the dialog to add a program). With a bit more specific info I imagine it can be configured to do what blocking you need.
I don't know which Windows Firewall is on Windows Server 2008.
The Windows Firewall on Windows Server 2003 does not give you options to create IP-specific rules. The firewall on Server 2008 has been updated to allow blocking by IP. You CAN do this using the IP Security Policy snap-in for MMC, however, in Server 2003.
Open MMC and add the "IP Security Policy" snap-in and create a new policy. You will need to create an IP list which contains the addresses you want to block, and an action list to specify the block action. Add a new policy rule which uses the IP list and the block action list, then activate (assign) it. The addresses on the policy list will then be blocked from connecting to the server.
This web site also has a good overview of the process: http://www.windowsitpro.com/article/ip-security-ipsec2/ipsec-packet-filtering.aspx