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If I run a server in a datacentre and some virtual servers (VBoxHeadless) on it, how can I set viertual servers to be accessible by their own IP-addresses (assuming the ISP can give me some)?

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Pretty much all OS' allow you to set a static IP address using their networking preferences. When using a Virtualization you can set the software to bridge the physical networking adapter with the virtual one. On each of those Virtualized OS' you set a static IP address and for the software running you set up a deamon for a specific port.

Example if you want a FTP server on multiple virtualizations you set one virtualized server FTP deamon to Port 25000 and on another virtualized server you set that FTP deamon port to 26000. Then from the router you port forward to that ip address with the port you assigned to the Deamon.

To the network, it looks like you have several machines running but in actuality you have a single physical machine and many virtualizations.

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Yes you can assign a public IP to VMs. Just allocate a NIC (or setup vLANs as needed) and connect that NIC to the public network, then connect the virtual machines to that network and assign a public IP to those VMs.

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