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I understand that keyservers are using the port 11371 but in many cases you are not allowed to connect to this port and you cannot add

There a many cases when you cannot modify the firewall configuration.

Example command that fails

 gpg --keyserver --recv-keys 0A5174AF

How do you solve this issue?

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up vote 2 down vote accepted

Some key servers answer to port 80 as well:

gpg --keyserver --recv-keys 0A5174AF

And since hkp relies on http, you should be able to use it trough a web proxy too.

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Ubuntu solve this problem and now the server also responds on port 80. – sorin Sep 22 '10 at 13:58

try this

sudo apt-key adv --keyserver-options http-proxy="http://<username>:<password>@<proxy_server_addr>:<proxy_port>" --keyserver hkp:// --recv-keys <key_to_import>
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Welcome to Server Fault! Whilst this may theoretically answer the question, please provide context around commands so others will have some idea what it is supposed to do and why it’s a solution. - Using a proxy is often a good solution though. – HBruijn Oct 15 '15 at 11:54

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