Windows is somewhat famous for having one and only one filesystem, NTFS. I also have been unable to dig out anything that suggests NTFS has checksumming. The closest I've come is a document describing the checksum protecting the GPT blocks on a dynamic disk. The "What's New in 2008" doc doesn't show anything like that for NTFS (link).
EXT4 uses journal checksumming, but not data checksumming.
GPFS also does journal checksumming.
The idea is new enough it isn't in a lot of file-systems yet. Btrfs is still 'experimental' in Linux, and ext4 is recently out of that state.