Short answer: Those settings do not exist anymore and you should use the Windows Firewall or Windows Firewall with Advanced Security to configure port blocking. If you want to automate the process you can use the netsh command line tool to open or close ports.
Long answer: The TCP/IP filtering option listed under the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) properties section were a GUI wrap around the IP Filtering API added in Windows Server 2000 and outlined in this document (Search for EnableSecurityFilters, TcpAllowedPorts, and UdpAllowedPorts for more details). These filters were per network card and were seperate from the Windows Firewall settings that operated at a higher level.
In Vista and Server 2008 the per network card settings have been replaced with domain, public and private network profile settings using a new filtering model called Windows Filtering Platform (WFP). The WFP API is used by the Windows firewall and IPsec as well as 3rd party firewall, antivirus, diagnostic, and other types of network applications:
Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) is a new architecture in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 that enables independent software vendors (ISVs) to filter and modify TCP/IP packets, monitor or authorize connections, filter Internet Protocol security (IPsec)-protected traffic, and filter remote procedure calls (RPCs). Filtering and modifying TCP/IP packets provides unprecedented access to the TCP/IP packet processing path. In this path, you can examine or modify outgoing and incoming packets before additional processing occurs. By accessing the TCP/IP processing path at different layers, you can more easily create firewalls, antivirus software, diagnostic software, and other types of applications and services.
WFP provides APIs so that you can participate in the filtering decisions that occur at several layers in the TCP/IP protocol stack. WFP also integrates and provides support for next-generation firewall features such as authenticated communication and dynamic firewall configuration that is based on an application's use of the Windows Sockets API. This capability is also known as an application-based policy.
WFP is not a firewall. It is a set of system services and user-mode and kernel-mode APIs that enable you to develop firewalls and other connection-monitoring or packet-processing software. For example, the Windows Firewall in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 uses WFP.