I want to create an executable that would be triggered by Sql Server when a row is inserted into a certain table. Does Sql Server offer any sort of hooks that would do something like that? If so, where would I find documentation or a tutorial?
Knowing which version of SQL server would be helpful.
You'll want to have a look at triggers. In this particular instance, you'll use a trigger to call a stored procedure, which will then call your executable.
Keep in mind that it's pretty easy to get sideways with triggers in terms of both security and that certain triggers can fire when ANY valid event occurs (and not necessarily row changes occur).