I have a Cisco ASA that I have VPN tunnels to connect my internal Windows network. I ran into some trouble logging into my domain so I unblocked all the ports on that internal interface. On a previous question posted here, the general consensus was that I should be blocking ports on my inside interface but my question is: what ports should I unblock? I've tried unblocking ports 88, 139, 135, 389, and 445 and Windows logins still give me problems. Is there some MS documentation somewhere that tells me what I need to unblock to allow Windows logins and other things?
Set your ASA to log DENY's, and then check your logs. That should give you a very clear indication of what boxes are trying to talk to what destinations. From there, you can determine if the activity looks legitimate and reasonable, and if so, you can add a line to permit the traffic.
Continue with this process until everything works properly.
(There may be a Windows document somewhere that does provide the information you're looking for, but I don't know what it is offhand. The above described process is what I typically follow when I know an application needs some sort of network access, but I don't know what ports are required.)
Like Christopher Cashell says you need to log the traffic to know what is required by all your systems. Given that your business may not accept a DENY rule that blocks all traffic while you figure out what is required, you could set a PERMIT rule instead, and log what is permitted, and analyse that. You can then use that to set up more specific PERMIT rules and then switch on the DENY as the last rule for that interface. That way you are only allowing the traffic you permitted.
Microsoft documentation should give you the ports their systems need - but your going to have to hunt them down for each application you are using.
rules are added to rulesets and rulesets are applied to the interface on which the traffic will ingress on. So if you're on the inside then the traffic originating from your machine will ingress on the "inside" interface and need to traverse elsewhere.
A rule in that ruleset allowing LDAP might look something like this:
here's a really loose version of the same rule:
and some syntax for you:
objects and object groups are used to make your configuration easier to work with. remember rules are matched top down with an implicit deny at the bottom!