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What is the difference?

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up vote 12 down vote accepted

Pretty much what it says on the tin.

In the first case, domain 2's SPF record is included in the SPF record for domain1, but can still be modified eg by adding another A host that isn't permitted for

"v=spf1 -all"

In the second case, domain2's SPF record is used as the complete SPF record for domain1, and no further modifications are possible.

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include: is also handy if the SPF record is too big for for one record. You can create a TXT record on and with the spf split into two and include both in the TXT record for Of course if this is required, the outgoing mail setup is probably a bit nuts! – Niall Donegan Jan 5 '11 at 17:18
Good point! I would edit it into my answer, but that seems faintly naff. – MadHatter Jan 5 '11 at 17:43

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