Two-factor authentication similar to SecurID is readily available via AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) by means of the AWS Multi-Factor Authentication. Whether this actually applies to your question depends on your particular use case though, i.e. what scenarios you need to protect with two-factor authentication (e.g. the mentioned SSH access vs. AWS Management Console access vs. access to websites you host on EC2 in return etc.).
Specifically, IAM covers access to the AWS Management Console but obviously not SSH, in addition EC2 is one of the AWS products, where IAM does not apply at the resource level, rather only at the service level, see Integrating with Other AWS Products and Using AWS Identity and Access Management with EC2, especially the following disclaimer:
Amazon EC2 uses SSH keys, Windows passwords, and security groups to
control who has access to specific Amazon EC2 instances. You can't use
the IAM system to allow or deny access to a specific instance.
Please note that IAM usage is highly recommended for anything AWS regardless of multifactor-authentication.
Finally I'd like to highlight two more recent additions to IAM potentially helpful regarding your use case as well: