Corruption implies random damage to your data. Corruption doesn't usually look like anything -- not in the way that you're implying by your question.
As Artem has already answered, there really isn't a definitive answer. It all depends on what your system is doing and what it's meant to do.
Basically, you need to learn what is normal for your system. When your system starts exhibiting behaviour outside of normal, you need to look for the root cause of the problem. One of the causes you should consider is data corruption.
I've seen data corruption manifest in a number of ways, including:
Significant increase in input validation errors for batch processes.
Reports with unexpected results. ie the values are out of the expected range.
Dial-up sessions consuming gigabytes of data in a matter of minutes. ie the data throughput was physically impossible.
Customers being billed stupidly large amounts of money. The reverse is true too -- stupidly large credits!
Programme crashes because the number does not fit into a two byte integer.