Firewall IP Filtering - Someone HAS to have a specific IP / SSH Password.
The HAS in Something someone HAS implies "possession", not "requires". It typically refers to a hardware token -- like a SecurID fob from RSA, or a Yubikey. In particular, it implies something that is unique and can only be possessed by one person at a time. An ssh password absolutely does not qualify, since a password can be compromised in a number of ways (trojaned ssh daemon, keylogger, visual observation, etc). Two-factor authentication is usually put in place to deal with the very real problems that affect password-based authentication.
IP addresses aren't good for authentication because (a) they're reasonably easy to fake, and (b) it's possible for multiple people to be connecting from the same ip address. In particular, if people are connecting from their house through a router, then you're relying on the security of their network (is it an open wifi network? Do they share with their neighbors?).
SSH Private Key (PER User) / SSH User Password
This is your "something someone knows". SSH keys are preferable to passwords, since this reduces the chances of someone's password being recovered by a trojaned ssh server. This does require that your users understand how to take care of their private keys (make sure they always have a password, never place them on shared storage, etc).
Phone/SMS Authentication of a dynamic token that is sent to the number of a person
This is a typical substitute for a dedicate hardware token (the assumption is that the ability to receive an SMS message to a given number requires that you possess the appropriate mobile phone). Google uses this for their two-factor authentication, for example, and there are a number of products out there that will let you roll this out yourself.
SSH keys + hardware token or SMS authentication is a good and reasonably common solution. Passwords instead of ssh keys are also common, but I like to advocate against them because passwords are prone to a number of problems.