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What we have

Please see this picture: (unfortunately, Serverfault doesn't allow to place images directly in the messages for the new users, ignoring that I already have the normal reputation in the Stackoverflow).

Is it real to provide permament access to data stored in this external HDD from any computer in the world, including from the home computer?

Only a router and the external HDD should work twenty-four-hourly. This condition is because such system should not create a lot of noise in the home and should use less electricity than a huge server.

What about safety of this solution?

Can this external HDD work permamently? I know that they go “sleep” after some time of not working, but anything can happens, you know

And, of course, how about access control? How to make different people to have different rights with this information?

Don’t say we will need an operation system. Where to install it? We have no computer. We have only router and external HDD. Maybe I don’t really know about all of the features of such routers, but... I really need your help.

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Assuming this documentation is correct for the stock firmware of your router, you can use the built-in VPN feature to connect remotely to your home network, and then use the access control in the same way that you would use it in a LAN.

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+1, If possible that would superseed my suggestion – Sirex Jan 26 '11 at 13:09

My suggestion would be put a firmware onto the router that allows ssh login, mount the nas onto the router, and use scp to copy files over the net. That should work, but its not exactly point-and-click easy to do.

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Why not build up a virtual private network and let both clients connect to it. The result could be seen as a simple Local Area Network (LAN).

Maybe there is a VPN-Server-software installed/available on your router.

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