You can run "prctl $$" to check the limits of your current process. The "system" ones are the maximum that can be set, a privileged one requires a privileged user to change, and a basic one may be changed by anyone. The one that applies to the current process is the lowest and will be at the top of the list. For example if I do this to change my file descriptors to 100,000:
prctl -t basic -n process.max-file-descriptor -v 100000 $$
Now if I run "prctl $$" again, the privileged value is now at the top because it's the lowest. Even though I changed the basic setting, it cannot give me more resources than the privileged value.
As already has been noted, Solaris is very flexible and dynamic on resource limits, and they can assigned by process, task, project, and zone. You can see which it applies to in the resource name. I don't think there is a Linux equivalent of projects and zones. Tasks are basically equivalent to process groups. Since you're probably running everything in the default configuration and global zone, the prctl command on your current process is probably good enough for what you're asking.
I should also mention the action as that may be import to you. Exceeding a resource can return an error to the code that's asking (deny), send a signal to the process (signal), or do nothing (none) in case you just want to log it but not break anything.