Critically important - water (maybe gatorade). It's a very dehydrating environment. Temperature varies greatly. Layered clothing, you may stand in a hot or cold area of high or low airflow. Keep your water in a proper container, both for real safety and to create the impression that you are behaving carefully (either to set a good example, or in case you are caught, depending on your position).
If you expect to spend extended periods in a server room, get earphones that act as earplugs. One headache from 18 hours in a server room makes them worth the money. Otherwise, earplugs if you're expecting an extended stay. Most data centers are under the OSHA requirement for ear protection, but demand earplugs anyway - take a sound reading in the worst spot and remind that the OSHA regs were meant for 8 hours, and you could spend far longer.
Hardware and tools that you expect to need, of course - this goes for any job. This includes cellphones and other communication devices as needed. I've seen more than one server room in which cellphones didn't work.
A second person. A server room is a work site that can experience accidents like any other. I don't often hear of fatal accidents in server rooms. But I have witnessed several incidents that could have been fatal if there were no one else around. I've seen (or been within earshot of) plenty of incidents where no one was injured and a machine was destroyed, just due to luck.
A camera. I disagree that a cell phone camera is good enough - useless in my experience. A camera is important for data center work, but you need to take a picture of a machine that's clear enough to read serial numbers, hostname stickers, model numbers, etc in one shot. A cellphone camera usually can't take a picture of a serial number sticker - to get it in focus, you need to move so far back you don't have enough resolution to read it. Take a picture of cables before doing work, of unexpected or surprising fault lights. Take a picture of cables after doing work, so you can check the picture before walking back to the data center.