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What is the best/fastest way of transferring data from an Amazon EC2 server to a non-Amazon server? Windows to Windows.

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It can help to explain what you're trying to achieve. Why does it need to be fast? How much data are you transferring? Are there security or reliability requirements? What about costs? How do you define "best"? –  Drew Khoury Feb 8 at 23:24
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5 Answers

If your EC2 instance is in the default security group, you should be able to use SFTP or FTP over SSH out of the box.

Related:

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Depends on how large your data is. For very large datasets, there is Amazon Import/Export and a section of that page is titled "When to Use AWS Import/Export" and it describes how long it might take to transer data over 100GB in and out of Amazon EC2. There is also Amazon Direct Connect that can give you a fat pipe to the US-East region.

If you referring smaller amounts of data, you might want to consider uploading to an S3 bucket and then downloading that from your non-Amazon workstation.

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If the data is not very critical you can use ftp. Make one a ftp server and the other a client. The benefit is ftp also supports resume, helpful in case the data transfer is interrupted.

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Amazon Direct Connect

http://aws.amazon.com/directconnect/

AWS Direct Connect makes it easy to establish a dedicated network connection from your premises to AWS. Using AWS Direct Connect, you can establish private connectivity between AWS and your datacenter, office, or colocation environment, which in many cases can reduce your network costs, increase bandwidth throughput, and provide a more consistent network experience than Internet-based connections.

Not the cheapest, but the fastest and arguably the best as it's a direct connection so you bypass the jungle that is the Internet.

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I would enable Local devices and resources sharing in the Remote Desktop Connection client application, then remote desktop to your server. At that point, copy the files from the server onto the Remote Desktop Connect client computer via the drive sharing (you will see it show up on the server as "C on CLIENTCOMPUTER" in Windows Explorer). Copy the files off your client onto your non-Amazon server.

Alternatively, you can map a drive letter on your client to your non-Amazon server, then share THAT drive letter mapping in Remote Desktop connection and your RDC session acts as a conduit between the two systems.

See this Technet article

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