Basically they're the same except when the variable is enclosed in double quotes. Then
$* expands to a single word and
$@ expands to separate words. I don't see any merit to claims that
$* is a security risk.
From the bash man page:
* Expands to the positional parameters, starting from one. When
the expansion occurs within double quotes, it expands to a sin-
gle word with the value of each parameter separated by the first
character of the IFS special variable. That is, "$*" is equiva-
lent to "$1c$2c...", where c is the first character of the value
of the IFS variable. If IFS is unset, the parameters are sepa-
rated by spaces. If IFS is null, the parameters are joined
without intervening separators.
@ Expands to the positional parameters, starting from one. When
the expansion occurs within double quotes, each parameter
expands to a separate word. That is, "$@" is equivalent to "$1"
"$2" ... If the double-quoted expansion occurs within a word,
the expansion of the first parameter is joined with the begin-
ning part of the original word, and the expansion of the last
parameter is joined with the last part of the original word.
When there are no positional parameters, "$@" and $@ expand to
nothing (i.e., they are removed).