I have recently renamed a SharePoint 2010 server and have been experiencing some odd errors. Mostly the site works but when I try to run the Sharepoint Configuration Wizard or access some Service Account settings under CA, I get error thrown.
After checking the log file I see messages referring to the User Profile Service...
User Profile Application Proxy failed to retrieve partitions from User Profile Application: Microsoft.Office.Server.UserProfiles.UserProfileApplicationNotAvailableException: No User Profile Application available to service the request. Contact your farm administrator.
The server has been renamed and added to the domain so the problems may have been caused by either of these things.