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I can check its value by cat /proc/sys/net/core/somaxconn,

is it OK if I change it simply by echo 1024 > /proc/sys/net/core/somaxconn?

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Yes. Alternatively, you can use:

sysctl -w net.core.somaxconn=1024

Add net.core.somaxconn=1024 to /etc/sysctl.conf for it to become permanent (be reapplied after booting).

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so both /proc/sys/net/core/somaxconn and /etc/sysctl.conf are persistent? – linux_user May 20 '11 at 1:17
@linux_user - no, only modifying /etc/sysctl.conf is persistent. /proc is not a "real" filesystem, only a filesystem interface to the kernel. – Eduardo Ivanec May 20 '11 at 4:11

yes /proc/sys/net/core/somaxconn is writable if you have the permissions to do so.

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You would have to modify /etc/sysctl.conf as root to make it persistent. /proc is not a real file system – Ganesh Krishnan Mar 16 '15 at 0:53

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