This is a color scheme, so your question doesn't really make sense. An application can use the color scheme to select which colors to display: I see terminal emulators for each platform are already covered, so using those would work. And I also see that there's support for most coding applications that use colored syntax highlighting: vim, emacs, Xcode, Visual Studio among others.
Setting colors in a bashrc doesn't make sense. Your example is selecting colors out of a palette to colorify parts of the bash prompt. The solarized theme is the color palette; you can do what you want with it after it's configured.
If you'd like to set up the palette in gnome-terminal or Eterm, nothing's stopping you from doing so. But you can't set a palette in your bashrc.