I was having the exact same issue on my ext4 system and just wanted to post my solution for future reference. When my drive initially filled out, I deleted a bunch of logs out of /var/log. That cleared up a couple GB, but within a few days I ran out of space again, and du -h and "mount --bind / /mnt" did not point to the culprit. What finally got it was when I ran lsof.
rsyslogd 1766 root 2w REG 9,1 12672375940 264014 /var/log/messages (deleted)
When I had deleted the messages log file, the rsyslog service still kept it open, but hidden. Running a "touch /var/log/messages;service rsyslog restart" cleared up the problem and my disk space was reclaimed.
The lsof output can be a bit overwhelming, especially if you have a busy system (it was over 1000 lines long on mine). If you grep for "deleted" in the lsof output, it should help to pinpoint the problem process.