It looks like you may be using SSH to connect to root. SSH usually doesn't allow logins to root, and many distributions don't allow root logins at all. You might be better off using an SSH authorized key to enable you to connect as root.
It would be better to connect to an account other than root if you can.
If you want to use an rsync deamon on the remote end I believe you need two colons after the server specification. Rsync user ids are not the same as system user ids. Access is controled by the rsync configuration file.
EDIT: If you are using an rsyncd deamon on 10.10.10.1 then either of these should work. (NOTE: I changed the user id, try to avoid using root.) I also assume you have a
tmp module mapping to
rsync -WavH --password-file=/tmp/passwords --progress email@example.com::tmp/my_file .
rsync -WavH --password-file=/tmp/passwords --progress rsyncd://firstname.lastname@example.org:tmp/my_file .
Verify you can connect to the daemon process with the command
telnet 10.10.10.1 873 which should return an RSYNC version. You can also test using rsync with the command
rsync 10.10.10.1:: which should return a list of public shares. Add your userid and password file to the command to get private shared.
If, as it appear,s you are using ssh, use a private key. You can use
ssh-add to load the key so you don't need to enter the password. Again don't use root unless you must. It would be better to give access to the file using a different group, and setup a userid with access to that group.
You can test ssh access with ssh. If the file is always new when you want to copy it, then scp would be simpler than rsync.
Try testing access without a copy option. Something like this should work:
rsync -vvv --password-file=/tmp/passwords email@example.com::tmp/my_file
EDIT2: I re-read your query. It appears you want to copy a single file without login. The easiest approach would be to use
scp with am authorized key file on the remote system. Few files are only readable by root, so you should be able to use a different user id. Try a command like:
scp firstname.lastname@example.org:/tmp/my_file .
The only advantage to using
rsync is to avoid copying the file if it hasn't been replaced. Because you use the
-W option, you loose the advantage of only transferring changes. For log files the
--append option can be helpful in speeding up transfers.