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Suppose I have two routers connected via a 1Gbit connection. A client behind router 1 streams to a client behind router 2 while other clients behind router 1 transmit data to other clients behind router 2.

Are there any best practice policing, scheduling or queue management algorithms available that help a beginner understand what is necessary to prevent QoS degration in simple cases as above as well as in real world environments?

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QoS is about who is allowed to "transmit" first based on attributes/properties/markings whatever. There are basic implementations that look for certain codes and more advanced ones that look for higher layer properties like ports and source/destination IP addresses. Since all your traffic in the scenario above is similar, QoS will not make much of a dent in prioritizing one over the other. Now... if this same link is carrying OTHER traffic, such as general Internet browsing or file traffic or other things, then QoS should be configured to allow the latency sensitive packets like voice and audio to empty out the queues first. Does that make sense? QoS is NOT a replacement for inadequate bandwidth.

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if you're using cisco gear, this ain't a bad place to start getting some configuration examples, but it does like slightly outdated: dslreports.com/faq/13324 –  SpacemanSpiff Nov 20 '11 at 16:53

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