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I am getting countless

warning: no newline at end of file

From some code that was last edited in Windows.

In Linux, how can I fix all these cpp/h files and add a new line to the end of every file that does not have a new line?

I've been trying to use sed:

find . \( -name "*.cpp" -o -name "*.h" -o -name "*.hpp" \) -print | xargs sed -i -e "$G"

But I haven't gotten it working yet.

share|improve this question
There is a command, dos2unix, that might be of assistance to you. It converts the CR+LF line ending of windows to the LF line ending of linux. Another option is to just echo (append - i.e. >> ) a newline to every relevant file. – cyberx86 Dec 11 '11 at 2:29
The problem is there are far too many files to find them by hand. – Zeno Dec 11 '11 at 2:32
Use find in that case, as with your example, just switch up sed for a different command (of course, try that command on a single file first). Both echo and dos2unix work fine with find. – cyberx86 Dec 11 '11 at 2:35
I'm trying find . \( -name "*.cpp" -o -name "*.h" -o -name "*.hpp" \) -print | xargs echo >> but that gives me error -bash: syntax error near unexpected token newline'` – Zeno Dec 11 '11 at 2:39
Hmm, I don't see a 'newline' in your command, so I guess that SF removed it. Just use echo without any arguments - it automatically adds a newline (and of course, test it out on one file before you do that - wouldn't want to see hundreds of files improperly edited) - so echo >> (note there is just a space between echo and >> in my command) – cyberx86 Dec 11 '11 at 2:47
up vote 2 down vote accepted

In the absence of dos2unix - which would be the ideal way, try:

find . \( -name "*.cpp" -o -name "*.h" -o -name "*.hpp" \) -print0 | xargs -0 -iFILE sh -c 'echo >> FILE'


find . -type f \( -name "*.cpp" -o -name "*.h" -o -name "*.hpp" \) -exec sh -c 'echo >> {}' \;

Note that redirection is always a problem - the replacement doesn't occur as desired without launching a new shell.

Since your question was about 'sed', you could also do it as:

find . \( -name "*.cpp" -o -name "*.h" -o -name "*.hpp" \) -print0 | xargs -0 sed -i -e '$a\

(That is a literal new line character - not a \n or anything else - probably best done as copy and paste - as it might be rather hard to type in :).

share|improve this answer
The first one seems to insert an "h" into the file? This would break my code. – Zeno Dec 11 '11 at 3:43
Sorry - typo - I used 'h' to test it since I was losing track of the new lines being entered - will have it edited in a second. – cyberx86 Dec 11 '11 at 3:46
Thanks, this worked. – Zeno Dec 11 '11 at 3:49
dos2unix did not affect all files. I used find -type f -exec dos2unix "{}" \+ It did convert existing line endings to linux, but it did not add newlines to the ends of files that didn't have them. By the way I think you make literal newline by typing ctrl-v and then ctrl-m in linux. See – Buttle Butkus Dec 13 '15 at 10:13
Actually, now I'm not sure that dos2unix failed. I based that judgment on using this code to search for files missing final newlines: find -type f -exec sh -c '[ -z "$(sed -n "\$p" "$1")" ] && echo "$1"' _ {} \; But it seems to be wrong. The 2nd and 3rd answers on that page give me no matches. ( pcregrep -LMr '\n$' . and -print0 | xargs -0 -L1 bash -c 'test "$(tail -c 1 "$0")" && echo "No new line at end of $0"' ) So now I don't know. – Buttle Butkus Dec 13 '15 at 10:29
find . \( -name "*.cpp" -o -name "*.h" -o -name "*.hpp" \) -print | xargs dos2unix {}
share|improve this answer
[root@server23 ~]# dos2unix -bash: dos2unix: command not foundThis server doesn't have that nor do I have permission to install dos2unix. – Zeno Dec 11 '11 at 3:34
If you are root you should be able to install it – ckliborn Dec 11 '11 at 3:35
Note that this will break badly on files that have spaces in the name or other oddities. Use "-print0" and "xargs -0" or just use the "-exec dos2unix '{}' +" arguments. Also, xargs does not take '{}' arguments. – Sean Reifschneider Dec 11 '11 at 3:37
find . ( -name ".cpp" -o -name ".h" -o -name "*.hpp" ) -print | xargs echo >> {} – ckliborn Dec 11 '11 at 3:37
@Zeno: If you can't install it, you can grab the package that has it, and use "rpm2cpio <PACKAGE-FILENAME | cpio -ivd" to extract it, then just run it from the extracted directory. For debian packages you need to use "ar xv PACKAGE-FILENAME" which then gives you a tar file that you can extract with "tar xvfz data.tar.gz". These will result in a "dos2unix" file that you could run with the full path to this extracted file ("find | grep dos2unix" if you can't find it). – Sean Reifschneider Dec 11 '11 at 3:44

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