Is this possible? Like a wildcard TXT record of some sort?
Yes, it is possible to define a wildcard TXT record. Notice that you should define both a TXT RR and a SPF RR.
And this gives me the same response for all queries to *.email.fbh:
You can, however, include a central spf record in the invidual subdomain spf records.
Each individual spf records for the subdomains could look like this:
And then add a TXT record for _spf.domain.tld with the actual spf values:
This way, you only need to maintain _spf.domain.tld, and not the records for the individual subdomains