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I have a .pid file, and I need to check if the process is running. So far I found two options

kill -0 `cat`

which prints out an error if the pid isn't running. I know this can be redirected to /dev/null, but it makes me think that this isn't the best solution.

The second solution would be to use ps, which however also prints on the STDOUT

ps -ef `cat`

Is it normal to redirect the output to /dev/null and just use the status code returned, or is it a sign that I'm doing something wrong and I need a different command?

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Use kill -0 as it is standard (POSIX)-compliant. – Anders Mar 5 '12 at 15:09

for most linux distros enumerating the /proc/{pid} is a good way to obtain information about the running processes, and usually how the userspace commands like "ps" are communicating with the kernel. So for example you can do;

[ -d "/proc/${kpid}" ] && echo "process exists" || echo "process not exists"

Edit: you should check that kpid is set, but this is more useful as it will return "not exists" for unset ${kpid}

[ -n "${kpid}" -a -d "/proc/${kpid}" ] && echo "process exists" || echo "process not exists"
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Thank you very much! Answer should be accepted! – Steve Muster Feb 7 '14 at 0:47
@SteveMuster This would make the answer Linux-specific. There is no /proc on OSX. And I think there's no /proc on BSD. – ash Nov 26 '14 at 15:44
Note with this you need to make sure ${kpid} exists – Wilf Aug 15 '15 at 12:55
@Wilf I edited it, so it returns "process not exists" for unset ${kpid} – Tom H Aug 15 '15 at 17:18
Thanks - I was doing a script that checks a PID using a similar method and it didn't work till I found this was the issue :) – Wilf Aug 15 '15 at 20:27

As Anders noted, you should use kill -0 for POSIX compliance.

On Linux systems, you can also check for the existence of a file in the /proc filesystem, e.g.,

-f /proc/$(cat
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If this is in a script (which I assume is the case as you're worried about printing to stdout) then the following would be how you could do it:

if ps -p $(cat > /dev/null 2>&1
    kill $(cat
    # Deal with the fact that the process isn't running
    # i.e. clear up the pid file

The ps -p looks for a process with the pid specified in (the $() syntax is a slightly newer version of the backtick. Backtick needs escaping in certain circumstances which the new form doesn't). The 2>&1 redirects stderr for that command as well.

If the ps -p command doesn't find the process with that PID it exits with a error > 0 and so the else gets executed. Otherwise the kill statement. You can negate the above if you want by doing:

if ! ps -p ...

Hope that answers your question. Obviously be careful and test a lot when using dangerous commands such as kill.

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Here are some options:

  • If you're writing init-script (e.g. the one to place in /etc/init.d/) and if you're using Debian-based distro, you'd better use start-stop-daemon:
    # start-stop-daemon -T -p $PIDFILE -u $USER_NAME -n $NAME
    You should get exit code 0 if it's running.
  • You may use pgrep and pkill from procps package:
    pgrep --pidfile $PIDFILE
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