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I have setup Software Raid 1 and Raid 10 using VirtualBox for testing purpose.

The partition and raid setup look like this:

enter image description here

When I deliberately remove Disk2 and restart a server, it booted to OS fine but it didn't let me know there was a disk failure?

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Use cat /proc/mdstat to check Linux software raid status. –  Khaled Apr 3 '12 at 9:52
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In a production environment you would probably have a number of ways of being alerted of this. For example,

  1. A monitoring system like nagios running scripts to look at /proc/mdstat and/or various outputs of mdadm.
  2. A log collector reading in the contents of /var/log/messages, /var/log/dmesg, etc.
  3. SNMPd running with a trap target configured. I don't know if md sends traps or not, though.
  4. Hardware out-of-band management devices like Dell's iDRAC, configured to send traps or emails on hardware failure.

And, yes, all of these wonderful things can be configured to page you at 2 AM! :-)

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