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This is a basic linux question I think, but I really want to know.

For example, currently I am in /usr/bin:

[x@localhost bin]$ pwd
[x@localhost bin]$ cd /
[x@localhost /]$

Now I want to go back to previous path /usr/bin, how to do that quickly? I don't want to type cd /usr/bin again.

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The command cd - will allow you to quickly return to the last directory.

You may also be interested in the pushd and popd commands which allow even more control over your directory navigation.

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Depending on the shell you use, there's usually a variable with the previous working directory. In bash, I believe it's $OLDPWD

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