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I have yet to see a system whose default configuration enables MMU and directed I/O virtualization. Often this necessitates rebooting and going into the BIOS to enable it if you want, e.g., 64-bit support on your VMs.

Is there some kind of substantial processor overhead that occurs if this is switched on and you're not using virtualization? If not, then what's the reason for it being off by default?

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One vote up since I am also asking myself this question! –  Valentin May 17 '12 at 13:44
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There were some proof-of-concept rootkits like Blue Pill a while back that could own a system with VT on. After this discovery, most vendors began shipping their units with VT disabled as a general security precaution.

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+1 People using VT on a desktop/laptop are the exception. That machine being susceptible to virii is the rule. –  Chris S May 17 '12 at 14:03
    
I'm suddenly having second thoughts about this shiny new powerful dev machine I've built that runs a bunch of VMs with hardware virtualization enabled. I don't need virtualization, but I figure it'd save me time in the long run not having to repave it every couple of months. How big an issue is this? –  Paperjam May 17 '12 at 21:16
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Virtually non-existant (as of this comment). Blue Pill was a proof of concept. I am unaware of anything like this in the wild. –  MDMarra May 17 '12 at 21:20
    
The point is awareness -- when you use virtualization, you have hypervisor software running that will raise a stink if it is not running on bare metal, but normal OS installs don't do that. –  Simon Richter May 18 '12 at 9:24
    
Here is the Microsoft evaluation of the security problem, including the recommendation to switch VT off by default on client role systems: msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/hardware/gg463498.aspx –  Jpsy Jul 20 '13 at 15:02
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All the blades we buy have virtualization enabled by default, because I guess our vendor has made a commercial decision to do so to save on so many support calls.

Its not disabled because of a processor hit, but depending on what its being used for, the reason that it may be off by default is that enabling these features can effect peripheral access.

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What peripheral access can this impact? I've never heard that before. –  MDMarra May 17 '12 at 13:25
    
Are you talking about VT-d when you mentioned peripheral access? –  Zoredache May 17 '12 at 19:03
    
No, it was MMU... I remember someone droning on about it recently. Something to do with Rasberry Pi. –  Sirch May 18 '12 at 9:46
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