If you aren't careful about how you trust and authenticate your RDP connections - your passwords and anything else you type is easily snaggable in near real-time over the network any way... so why worry about local keyloggers? ;)
As some have already said, no - there is no reliable way. A rootkit can easily make itself completely undetectable for all eternity without even having to disguise as another processes. Nothing is secure. Stuff is just insecure to varying degrees ^^
One trick could be to wipe the system and install it without being connected to a network. Set up Bitlocker using TPM and have it verify that all system files are unmodified on each boot - and let it deny you booting/decrypting if not (then you'll have to do a controlled wipe again). Still, there are certainly still flaws where a keylogger could be installed without being detected.
All in all, using only passwords aren't nearly good enough for anything requiring a moderate level of security. Two-factor authentication with one-time-use passwords would help, as would smartcard-based authentication or other independent device certificate-based authentication.