Based on above screenshot your virtual machine whatever.cloudapp.net is not accessible. It is possible that:
- Virtual machine is not running and because of that the machine is not available
- Virtual machine is running but met some problem and because of Remote Connection services is not running and you can not connect
- You are trying to connect to Virtual machine incorrectly because your screenshot tells that you have either created a RDP file to connect or trying to connect directly by creating a new connection.
If you are sure that your Azure Virtual machine is running properly, then I believe #3 is your main problem. This is because the RDP access script which you download from your own portal has some cookie info which is needed to connect to your Virtual machine.
The best would be to download the RDP access script directly from your Portal related to your Virtual Machine instance and then try to connect it.
If you need help, please follow my this blog which will guide you step by step on this regard.