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Is there a way for an HTTP server to tell from HTTP headers if a proxy server has been involved in the connection?

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Not with certainty. Nice ones may add some headers. Less forthcoming ones might not. Your milage may vary depending on why/how you use the information.

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If the headers are enabled. Just for example I've got a Squid installation on pfSense (basically Squid on my router with a GUI). There I have 2 relevant options:

"Disable X-Forward
If not set, Squid will include your system's IP address or name in the HTTP requests it forwards.

Disable VIA
If not set, Squid will include a Via header in requests and replies as required by RFC2616."

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There are headers like X-Real-IP X-Forwared-For wich can help you to detect proxies.

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