What you're asking really has very little to do with Active Directory (and I'll probably edit your title). I think you're really asking is:
"What's a good way to share a scanner between multiple computers efficiently and w/o hand-loading a lot of software?"
Consumer-style USB attached scanners aren't too good at this, typically. You'll have better luck with scanners that are targeted at network attachment directly. Your application software that you're scanning into is going to dictate what type of drivers you're looking for (network-based TWAIN, WIA, etc). Some driver software is going to have to be installed on PCs unless you're okay with having no integration with application software on the PCs and using, for example, a web-based scanning gateway.
I have personal experience with Ricoh multifunction copier / printer / fax / scanner / blender / coffee machine (I kid, I kid) devices and their "network TWAIN" drivers. They work as expected, for the most part, though the workflow of "get up and go to the scanner" is a little bit awkward.
If your application software supports receiving incoming scans in a folder you might opt for a type of scanner solution that supports dumping the scans as files into a remote server (via FTP, SMB/CIFS, NFS, etc). I've used the Ricoh devices in this capacity, too, and it works very well. They can scan to multi-page TIFF, JPG, or PDF, and dump the resulting files into a server computer for processing.
What you're looking for is going to be controlled more by what your application software needs from the scanner than anything else.