On most modern distros, you'll have a
/dev/disk directory. Inside will be a handful of other directories, each corresponding to one way to find a disk device.
by-id, you'll see drives and partition "names" as made up by the kernel. Usually these names will include the disk model number and serial number. For example, a name I have on one of my systems is
scsi-SATA_ST3808110AS_5LR187B2 is a SCSI (SATA) Seagate ST3808110AS with the serial number 5LR187B2.
by-label, you'll see partition labels, as discussed in your earlier question. You might not have labels, and they're for partitions, not drives.
by-path, you'll see path name built from the chain of devices that lead to the device. For example, I have one called
pci-0000:00:1f.2-scsi-3:0:0:0 -- the fourth (counting from zero) SCSI device attached to a SCSI adapter attached to the PCI bus.
by-uuid contains the UUIDs assigned to each partition on the available drives.
All of these are simple symlinks back to the appropriate device in /dev.
If you're trying to find a device on a specific SATA port, using the device names in
by-path is probably going to work for you.