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On my new Windows Server 2012 I've installed a printer and shared it via the Sharing tab:

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I'm not in a Windows domain (just a regular work group) and printing works fine.

Now there's also the "Print and Ducment Services" role - which includes the "Print Server" role service. Why would I need this role? Or is this just for "advanced" printer deployment?

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up vote 7 down vote accepted

It is pretty much what you assume it to be, additional features. As you have experienced, you'll still be able to share printers and act as a "print server" without the role. However, the role provides things like the Printer Management console for ease of management, quick deployment through Group Policy (if you were using a AD Domain). You can also install things like the LDP service for printing from Unix based hosts, and Internet Printing.

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