There have been similar questions on StackExchange but none of the answers helped me, so I'll try a question of my own.
I have a VPN connection via OpenVPN. By default, all traffic is redirected through the tunnel using OpenVPN's "two more specific routes" trick, but I disabled that. My routing table is like this:
22.214.171.124 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.255 UGH 0 0 0 eth0 10.30.92.5 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 tun1 10.30.92.1 10.30.92.5 255.255.255.255 UGH 0 0 0 tun1 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 0.0.0.0 10.30.92.5 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 tun1 0.0.0.0 192.168.2.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0
And the interface configuration is like this:
# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr XX-XX- inet addr:192.168.2.100 Bcast:192.168.2.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::211:9ff:fe8d:acbd/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:394869 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:293489 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:388519578 (370.5 MiB) TX bytes:148817487 (141.9 MiB) Interrupt:20 Base address:0x6f00 tun1 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00 inet addr:10.30.92.6 P-t-P:10.30.92.5 Mask:255.255.255.255 UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:64 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:67 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:100 RX bytes:9885 (9.6 KiB) TX bytes:4380 (4.2 KiB)
plus the lo device.
The routing table has two default routes, one via eth0 through my local network router (DSL modem) at 192.168.2.1, and another via tun1 through the VPN's gateway. With this configuration, if I connect to a site, the route chosen is the direct one (because it has less hops?):
# traceroute 126.96.36.199 -n traceroute to 188.8.131.52 (184.108.40.206), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets 1 192.168.2.1 0.427 ms 0.491 ms 0.610 ms 2 220.127.116.11 17.981 ms 20.137 ms 22.141 ms 3 18.104.22.168 23.681 ms 25.009 ms 26.401 ms ...
This is fine, because my goal is to send only traffic from specific applications through the tunnel (esp. transmission, using its -i / bind-address-ipv4 option). To test whether this can work at all, I check it first with traceroute's -s option:
# traceroute 22.214.171.124 -n -s 10.30.92.6 traceroute to 126.96.36.199 (188.8.131.52), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets 1 * * * 2 * * * 3 * * * ...
This I take to mean that connection using the tunnel's local address as source is not possible.
What is possible (though only as root) is to specify the source interface:
# traceroute 184.108.40.206 -n -i tun1 traceroute to 220.127.116.11 (18.104.22.168), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets 1 10.30.92.1 129.337 ms 297.758 ms 297.725 ms 2 * * * 3 22.214.171.124 297.653 ms 297.652 ms 297.650 ms ...
So apparently the tun1 interface is working and it is possible to send packets through it.
But selecting the source interface is not implemented in my actual target application (transmission), so I would like to get source address selection to work.
What am I doing wrong?
Edit: Based on the answer by DerfK, here's my OpenVPN configuration:
In the .conf- or .ovpn-file, include these commands
# disable automatic route configuration route-noexec # enable executing scripts script-security 2 # script to configure routes up updown.sh # script to deconfigure routes down updown.sh
And the script
#!/bin/bash case $script_type in up) echo routes up # reproduce OpenVPN's standard routes ip route add $trusted_ip via $route_net_gateway ip route add $route_network_1 via $route_vpn_gateway # but put the default route in an extra table ip route add default via $route_vpn_gateway table 200 # and make sure it is activated by selection of the interface's address ip rule add from $ifconfig_local/32 table 200 # flush routing cache (but everything seems to work without this, too) ip route flush cache ;; down) echo routes down ip route del $trusted_ip ;; esac
With this configuration, the
traceroute -s command gives the same output as the
traceroute -i showing the route through the VPN to the target address.
Something I did not explain in my original post: The VPN in question does not provide access to a protected local network, but to the Internet, but from a different location / IP address. Otherwise, adding a default route would not have been necessary in the first place.