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I have an old Joomla! site that I would like to convert to a static set of html pages (since it's not being updated anymore and I don't want the overhead of having a MySQL db running for something that is never updated).

Is there a command-line tool that could basically crawl and download the entire forward-facing website?

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The best way to do that would actually be to NOT do that, since you asked. –  HopelessN00b Genius of network Oct 23 '12 at 23:15
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2 Answers

wget usually works.

GNU page: https://www.gnu.org/software/wget

Wiki: http://wget.addictivecode.org

Example:

wget.exe -x -r http://www.acmecorp.com

Would create a directory called www.acmecorp.com under your current directory, and recursively download all of the content.

There are a myriad of options.

wget --help
GNU Wget 1.11.1, a non-interactive network retriever.
Usage: wget [OPTION]... [URL]...

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

Startup:
  -V,  --version           display the version of Wget and exit.
  -h,  --help              print this help.
  -b,  --background        go to background after startup.
  -e,  --execute=COMMAND   execute a `.wgetrc'-style command.

Logging and input file:
  -o,  --output-file=FILE    log messages to FILE.
  -a,  --append-output=FILE  append messages to FILE.
  -d,  --debug               print lots of debugging information.
  -q,  --quiet               quiet (no output).
  -v,  --verbose             be verbose (this is the default).
  -nv, --no-verbose          turn off verboseness, without being quiet.
  -i,  --input-file=FILE     download URLs found in FILE.
  -F,  --force-html          treat input file as HTML.
  -B,  --base=URL            prepends URL to relative links in -F -i file.

Download:
  -t,  --tries=NUMBER            set number of retries to NUMBER (0 unlimits).
       --retry-connrefused       retry even if connection is refused.
  -O,  --output-document=FILE    write documents to FILE.
  -nc, --no-clobber              skip downloads that would download to
                                 existing files.
  -c,  --continue                resume getting a partially-downloaded file.
       --progress=TYPE           select progress gauge type.
  -N,  --timestamping            don't re-retrieve files unless newer than
                                 local.
  -S,  --server-response         print server response.
       --spider                  don't download anything.
  -T,  --timeout=SECONDS         set all timeout values to SECONDS.
       --dns-timeout=SECS        set the DNS lookup timeout to SECS.
       --connect-timeout=SECS    set the connect timeout to SECS.
       --read-timeout=SECS       set the read timeout to SECS.
  -w,  --wait=SECONDS            wait SECONDS between retrievals.
       --waitretry=SECONDS       wait 1..SECONDS between retries of a retrieval.
       --random-wait             wait from 0...2*WAIT secs between retrievals.
       --no-proxy                explicitly turn off proxy.
  -Q,  --quota=NUMBER            set retrieval quota to NUMBER.
       --bind-address=ADDRESS    bind to ADDRESS (hostname or IP) on local host.
       --limit-rate=RATE         limit download rate to RATE.
       --no-dns-cache            disable caching DNS lookups.
       --restrict-file-names=OS  restrict chars in file names to ones OS allows.
       --ignore-case             ignore case when matching files/directories.
       --user=USER               set both ftp and http user to USER.
       --password=PASS           set both ftp and http password to PASS.

Directories:
  -nd, --no-directories           don't create directories.
  -x,  --force-directories        force creation of directories.
  -nH, --no-host-directories      don't create host directories.
       --protocol-directories     use protocol name in directories.
  -P,  --directory-prefix=PREFIX  save files to PREFIX/...
       --cut-dirs=NUMBER          ignore NUMBER remote directory components.

HTTP options:
       --http-user=USER        set http user to USER.
       --http-password=PASS    set http password to PASS.
       --no-cache              disallow server-cached data.
  -E,  --html-extension        save HTML documents with `.html' extension.
       --ignore-length         ignore `Content-Length' header field.
       --header=STRING         insert STRING among the headers.
       --max-redirect          maximum redirections allowed per page.
       --proxy-user=USER       set USER as proxy username.
       --proxy-password=PASS   set PASS as proxy password.
       --referer=URL           include `Referer: URL' header in HTTP request.
       --save-headers          save the HTTP headers to file.
  -U,  --user-agent=AGENT      identify as AGENT instead of Wget/VERSION.
       --no-http-keep-alive    disable HTTP keep-alive (persistent connections).
       --no-cookies            don't use cookies.
       --load-cookies=FILE     load cookies from FILE before session.
       --save-cookies=FILE     save cookies to FILE after session.
       --keep-session-cookies  load and save session (non-permanent) cookies.
       --post-data=STRING      use the POST method; send STRING as the data.
       --post-file=FILE        use the POST method; send contents of FILE.
       --content-disposition   honor the Content-Disposition header when
                               choosing local file names (EXPERIMENTAL).
       --auth-no-challenge     Send Basic HTTP authentication information
                               without first waiting for the server's
                               challenge.

HTTPS (SSL/TLS) options:
       --secure-protocol=PR     choose secure protocol, one of auto, SSLv2,
                                SSLv3, and TLSv1.
       --no-check-certificate   don't validate the server's certificate.
       --certificate=FILE       client certificate file.
       --certificate-type=TYPE  client certificate type, PEM or DER.
       --private-key=FILE       private key file.
       --private-key-type=TYPE  private key type, PEM or DER.
       --ca-certificate=FILE    file with the bundle of CA's.
       --ca-directory=DIR       directory where hash list of CA's is stored.
       --random-file=FILE       file with random data for seeding the SSL PRNG.
       --egd-file=FILE          file naming the EGD socket with random data.

FTP options:
       --ftp-user=USER         set ftp user to USER.
       --ftp-password=PASS     set ftp password to PASS.
       --no-remove-listing     don't remove `.listing' files.
       --no-glob               turn off FTP file name globbing.
       --no-passive-ftp        disable the "passive" transfer mode.
       --retr-symlinks         when recursing, get linked-to files (not dir).
       --preserve-permissions  preserve remote file permissions.

Recursive download:
  -r,  --recursive          specify recursive download.
  -l,  --level=NUMBER       maximum recursion depth (inf or 0 for infinite).
       --delete-after       delete files locally after downloading them.
  -k,  --convert-links      make links in downloaded HTML point to local files.
  -K,  --backup-converted   before converting file X, back up as X.orig.
  -m,  --mirror             shortcut for -N -r -l inf --no-remove-listing.
  -p,  --page-requisites    get all images, etc. needed to display HTML page.
       --strict-comments    turn on strict (SGML) handling of HTML comments.

Recursive accept/reject:
  -A,  --accept=LIST               comma-separated list of accepted extensions.
  -R,  --reject=LIST               comma-separated list of rejected extensions.
  -D,  --domains=LIST              comma-separated list of accepted domains.
       --exclude-domains=LIST      comma-separated list of rejected domains.
       --follow-ftp                follow FTP links from HTML documents.
       --follow-tags=LIST          comma-separated list of followed HTML tags.
       --ignore-tags=LIST          comma-separated list of ignored HTML tags.
  -H,  --span-hosts                go to foreign hosts when recursive.
  -L,  --relative                  follow relative links only.
  -I,  --include-directories=LIST  list of allowed directories.
  -X,  --exclude-directories=LIST  list of excluded directories.
  -np, --no-parent                 don't ascend to the parent directory.

Mail bug reports and suggestions to <bug-wget@gnu.org>.
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I just made static pages from an old Joomla with this command:

wget --adjust-extension --mirror --page-requisites --convert-links http://my.domain.com

It's short version is:

wget -E -m -p -k http://my.domain.com

This save pages with .hml extension and will get (almost) all css, js and images files the pages need.

But I wanted my static mirror to have the same links as the original. So the files names couldn’t have the .html extension, which made me remove the -E option.

Then I found that the -p option (and -k) doesn’t work the same way if you don’t use the -E . But using -E and -p still is the best way to get most of the page-requisites. So I did a first fetch with it, deleted all .html files and then fetched all over again without -E.

As option -k without -E also doesn’t convert all links, I had to make some substitutions. The complete list of commands used is:

# To get almost every thing:
wget --adjust-extension --mirror --page-requisites --convert-links http://my.dommain.com

# Remove files ending with .html:
find my.dommain.com/ -name '*.html*' -exec  rm {} \;

# Get pages without .html extension:
wget --mirror --page-requisites --convert-links http://my.dommain.com

# Check if there are unconverted absolute URL and which are:
grep -lr "http:\/\/my.dommain.com" my.dommain.com/ | sort -u | xargs sed -ne '/http:\/\/my\.dommain\.com/s/.*"http:\/\/\([^"]*\).*/http:\/\/\1/p' | sort -u
# Unconverted absolute URL correspond to missing needed files, so get them:
grep -lr "http:\/\/my.dommain.com" my.dommain.com/ | sort -u | xargs sed -ne '/http:\/\/my\.dommain\.com/s/.*"http:\/\/\([^"]*\).*/http:\/\/\1/p' | sort -u | wget -x -i -
# Then, converter all missing absolute URL to relative:
grep -lr “http:\/\/my.domain.com” my.domain.com/ | sort -u | xargs sed -i -e '/http:\/\/my\.domain\.com/s/http:\/\/my\.domain\.com\/\([^"]*\)/\1/g'

# Converter all URL with "?" into its URL encoding equivalent (%3F):
grep -lr –exclude=*.{css,js} '=\s\{0,1\}”[^?"]*?[^"]*”' my.domain.com/ | sort -u | xargs sed -i -e '/\(=\s\{0,1\}”[^?"]*\)?\([^"]*”\)/s/\(=\s\{0,1\}”[^?"]*\)?\([^"]*”\)/\1%3F\2/g'

As I was mirroring a site under a path in my domain I ended up with this file:

my.domain.com/subsite/index.html

That index.html was deleted by my second command, which is ok. When I ran the second wget it created a file with the same name as the directory and an index.php inside it, like:

my.domain.com/subsite.1
my.domain.com/subsite/index.php

...and converted (at least some) home links to subsite.1. If all home links were the same, only one of those two files would be needed. And index.php is the best choice as it is automatically served when a client asks for http://my.domain.com/subsite.

To solve that I ran:

# To verify if there were links to subsite.1:
grep -r 'subsite\.1' my.domain.com/
# To convert links from subsite.1 to subsite:
grep -lr 'subsite\.1' my.domain.com/ | sort -u | xargs sed -i -e '/subsite\.1/s/\(subsite\)\.1/\1/g'
# Then I could delete the "duplicated" index file:
rm my.domain.com/subsite.1

In the end, using a web developer tool (firebug) I found that there were still missing some files that were included by javascript or by css. I got them one by one.

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