Is there a way of telling which version of Microsoft SQL Server a database backup is from without restoring it?
The database version can be found in the column: DatabaseVersion
From Jonathan Kehayias blog post here the number in this column:
If you try to run this sql for a more recent database version than the one you're running it under (eg a 2012 DB from SSMS 2008), the database results display as INCOMPLETE
To check the build number of the instance check for columns:
Documentation can be found here (TechNet link).