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On my Windows 2008 R2 box, I have setup "Max Available Memory" in the advanced options of msconfig > boot to 4GB. I have 8GB of memory physically installed in the server.

Can I increase the "Max Available Memory" to make use of all available memory without rebooting the server?

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Where exactly did you set this limit? Do you mean Virtual memory maximum size in Advanced Options? – Volodymyr M. Nov 2 '12 at 8:51
In the MSCONFIG utility under the BOOT tab, you can open up a window to configure advanced boot options. This basically sets kernel parameters in the boot.ini file. – Krish Nov 2 '12 at 9:03
I assume this can't be done without system restart, since OS needs to re-initialize extra RAM/CPU. – Volodymyr M. Nov 2 '12 at 9:33

After changing this configuration, you must reboot the server for Windows to begin using the increased amount of memory.

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