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I need to get detailed information of certain file or folder, such as chmod, changed date, which user.

How can I do this?

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You might give ls -al or stat <filename> a try – Univ426 Jan 9 '13 at 15:47
Either you have to audit it or stat it when you want. – Soham Chakraborty Jan 9 '13 at 15:51
I think stat reports more info about file for my needs. – Kad Jan 9 '13 at 15:59
I think some malicious script changed my php file chmod settings so i need to know details of that to increase security – Kad Jan 12 '13 at 0:25

You can try to use inotifywait

Try like this:

inotifywait -e attrib -m the_folder_to_watch

Where -e is the event to monitor, -m is monitor continuously.

See the blogpost here:

And the man for inotifywait:

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There is no way to do this (that I know of, I could be corrected and learn something as well) unless you've installed a package to handle this. Meaning, if you didn't plan ahead and monitor a file, there is no way to get this information. All you'll be able to get from the file is the basic information that the stat <filename> cmd shows you, which wont show you what user altered a file.

That being said, in the future there are packages like audit that help you handle this and after you set a file to be audited, a simple ausearch -f <filename> would allow you to see this type of information. You could also use something like aide -- which I personally like.

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