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We have some SFTP-Chroot Environments where we only allow 4096bit RSA Keys for authentication and we only have the public key part from our users. But we have a policy that the user has to set a password for their private key parts.

Is there a way to check if thats true (that theyve really set a password) only by owning the public key part or maybe by setting something in openssh-server config?

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You can't (with only the public key). The user may change or remove the password for the private key without affecting the server.

There is a similar question: How to tell if a public SSH key has a passphrase

If you are implementing two-factor authentication, maybe you could consider PAM or a custom script. Making it work with some SFTP clients may be a pain though.

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thank you for your answer. i already thought that its not possible but was unsure. thanks for ensure. –  martinseener Feb 12 '13 at 14:48

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