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I am having trouble finding info that explains the purpose of the default mysql database vs information_schema. Users and passwords are in mysql in the users tables, but what other types of data goes into these two dbs and where is this behavior configured? If possible please provide a quick summary and a link to documentation that discuses this.

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In the DBA StackExchange I answer this question

explaining how the tables in that schema are populated with metadata about the physical files of the tables and intrinsic statistics.

I also answered questions like these in the DBA StackExchange

concerning the mysql schema's tables in terms of security.

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I hope these answers helped ...

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