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There are several Cisco devices on my network which I can find with ping or nmap but I have no idea what the type (e.g. switches, routers) or specific model is. Is there some way to find this out without physical access or having a login to any of these?

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If CDP is enabled, you might get more information by running a CDP client. –  Zoredache Apr 3 '13 at 22:32
    
that is a good answer, although Cisco's exam guide suggests no cdp enable –  mathStudent Apr 4 '13 at 2:12
    
@T.Webster CDP is usually only disabled facing untrusted ports, like your ISP or a customer port. In a more enterprise context, CDP is used by Cisco APs and Cisco phones, so it's usually enabled on access ports regardless of what the exam guide might suggest. –  scottm32768 Apr 10 '13 at 16:43
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up vote 3 down vote accepted

You can find some information by using nmap's -O switch. You can also get the information using SNMP but you would have to look at Cisco's MIB's to figure out which one to use.

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e.g. nmap -A 10.0.0.1 works also –  mathStudent Apr 3 '13 at 23:39
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ICMP cannot be used to extract information like that.

Without a login you maybe have one option:

Hope that SNMP is enabled and using a known community string like "public". SNMP will at least reveal an OID you can tie back to a model number using SNMPwalk. Plenty of tutorials out there on how to do this.

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