Absolutely. It works this way by default. Just map a share on the server. In windows you would do something like
\\fqdn.or.ip.of.server\share. On mac, you can just specify the URI for it in a similar fashion in the connect to a server dialog (the example apple gives is
Keep in mind that you will still have to have permission on the share. This will involve either the guest account, or supplying domain credentials on connect, but you don't need your computer to be a member of the domain to authenticate to resources in it. The purpose of domain membership (among others) is to allow your computer to authenticate users in the domain itself (eg. to use domain security principals locally).