After installing Outlook 2013 configuring it to connect to an exchange server (details about which, e.g., version, etc., I do not know how to provide) was stressful and the user used outlook without issue for a session. The next time outlook is started this error (Re. subject) occurs. The answer to this question solves the issue, or explains why it is happening (i.e., no one could provide a solution).
Full size image: http://i.imgur.com/H2bVlyJ.png
EDIT 5/18: To add more detail, a) after outlook 2013 was installed and configured (through the menu it prompts you with, add an account) it connected and was fine. It is only after outlook is closed and re-opened that it will not connect again to the server. This problem has been mentioned elsewhere, e.g., http://community.office365.com/en-us/forums/158/t/62832.aspx.