ufs), the number of inodes a file system can hold is set at creation time so no mount option can workaround it.
Some filesystems like
xfs have the ratio of space used by inodes a tunable so it can be increased at any time.
Modern file systems like
btrfs have no hardcoded limitation on the number of files a file system can store, inodes (or their equivalent) are created on demand.
Edit: narrowing the answer to the updated question.
tmpfs, the default number of inodes is computed to be large enough for most of the realistic use cases. The only situation where this setting wouldn't be optimal would be if a large number of empty files are created on
tmpfs. If you are in that case, the best practice is to adjust the
nr_inode parameter to a value large enough for all the files to fit but not use
tmpfs documentation states this shouldn't be the default setting because of a risk of memory exhaustion by non root users:
if nr_inodes=0, inodes will not be limited. It is generally unwise to
mount with such options, since it allows any user with write access to
use up all the memory on the machine; but enhances the scalability of
that instance in a system with many cpus making intensive use of it.
However, it is unclear how this could happen given the fact
tmpfs RAM usage is by default limited to 50% of the RAM:
size: The limit of allocated bytes for this tmpfs instance. The
default is half of your physical RAM without swap. If you
oversize your tmpfs instances the machine will deadlock
since the OOM handler will not be able to free that memory.