I would not necessarily trust
Get-ADUser -LDAPFilter "(&(objectCategory=Person)(objectClass=User)(lockoutTime>=1))" -Properties LockedOut, as it is not returning reliable results for me either, but then, I'm also unable to directly contact my PDCe at this time. For best results, you would want to directly target your PDC-emulator, as it always has the most up-to-date information on account lockouts throughout the domain.
That's what I am wagering that you're witnessing here is a delay in replication:
... account lockout is urgently replicated to the primary
domain controller (PDC) emulator role owner and is then urgently
replicated to the following:
• Domain controllers in the same domain
that are located in the same site as the PDC emulator.
• Domain controllers in the same domain that are located in the same
site as the domain controller that handled the account lockout.
• Domain controllers in the same domain that are located in sites that
have been configured to allow change notification between sites (and,
therefore, urgent replication) with the site that contains the PDC
emulator or with the site where the account lockout was handled. These
sites include any site that is included in the same site link as the
site that contains the PDC emulator or in the same site link as the
site that contains the domain controller that handled the account
In addition, when authentication fails at a domain controller other
than the PDC emulator, the authentication is retried at the PDC
emulator. For this reason, the PDC emulator locks the account before
the domain controller that handled the failed-password attempt if the
bad-password-attempt threshold is reached. For more information about
how the PDC emulator role owner manages password changes and account
lockouts, see "Managing Flexible Single-Master Operations" in this
Search-ADAccount -LockedOut -Server DC-PDCE and see if your results are any better.
Also, here's something else to consider when building queries around the lockoutTime attribute:
This attribute value is only reset when the account is logged onto
successfully. This means that this value may be non zero, yet the
account is not locked out. To accurately determine if the account is
locked out, you must add the Lockout-Duration to this time and compare
the result to the current time, accounting for local time zones and
daylight savings time.
Edit: By way of reverse engineering
Microsoft.ActiveDirectory.Management.dll, I can tell you that
Search-ADAccount -LockedOut, which seems to me to produce pretty reliable results, runs the following code:
else if ((bool) this._paramSet.LockedOut)
list.Add(ADAccountFactory<ADAccount>.AttributeTable[cmdletSessionInfo.ConnectedADServerType]["AccountLockoutTime"].InvokeToSearcherConverter(ADOPathUtil.CreateFilterClause(ADOperator.Ge, "AccountLockoutTime", (object) 1), cmdletSessionInfo));
this.OutputFilterFunction = new ADGetCmdletBase<SearchADAccountParameterSet, ADAccountFactory<ADAccount>, ADAccount>.OutputFilterDelegate(this.FilterIsLockedOut);
if (list.Count > 0)
this.OutputSearchResults(list.Count != 1 ? ADOPathUtil.CreateAndClause(list.ToArray()) : list);
So it appears that
Search-ADAccount -LockedOut is looking at the AccountLockoutTime attribute too!
Edit some more for great justice: Richard Mueller, Dir. Services MVP, says this:
You cannot use the userAccountControl attribute to identify users that
are locked out. There is a bit of userAccountControl documented for
this, but it is not used.
I can verify this thusly:
PS C:\Users\ryan> $(Search-ADAccount -LockedOut).Count
PS C:\Users\ryan> $(Get-ADUser -LDAPFilter "(&(objectCategory=User)(userAccountControl:1.2.840.113518.104.22.1683:=16))").Count
Finally, I'd like to end on this blog post on the topic, which explains why the
lockoutTime>=1 is approaching the best solution, but that's only part of the story. You need to further filter down the list to include only the users where their lockoutTime is greater than $(your domain lockout duration) minutes in the past.