In our case we need a central control installed on Windows Server and schedule local backups in remote servers. Transferring remote backups to the central control is not required. For this scenario, is it possible to control Amanda/Zmanda backup clients only using Puppet, without Amanda Server?
No, the Amanda client is not capable of doing a backup on its own.
If you want to schedule unmanaged backups on each machine, use the built-in backup service.