I'm setting up my first instance on EC2, and trying to find clear information on the security group settings is a bit difficult for a newbie like me. Are there some suggested settings that give a standard level of security for a production website built with PHP and MySQL? In particular, what sort of things should I be looking out for?
the aws cli tools is what you are looking for.
you can use them to create a security group (ec2-create-group), assign it to an instance (ec2-run-instance), and add acls (ec2-authorize).....
for instance, to allow tcp/80 from the public internet, you would execute:
==> ec2-authorize [security-group-id] -P tcp -p 80 -s 0.0.0.0/0
all the cli tools can be run with -h for information on usage.
There's a lot of basic information about AWS security groups on the web you can try these:
Its important to understand first the fundamentals of a thing/tools before applying it.
With regards to security, you can also implement other approach like using IPtables if your using Redhat base or UFW if your using Ubuntu Linux or installing reverse proxy and other security plugins etc. that will help to harden different level of your security to your website